Online Articles and Reports (Last updated, October 21, 2019)

  1. An Exotic Tool for Espionage: A Moral Compass, Scott Shane, New York Times, January 28, 2006 

  2. Bungee Jumping Off the Moral Highground: The Ethics of Espionage in the Modern Age, Tony Pfaff, 2002 

  3. Intelligence Ethics and Non-Coercive Interrogation, Michael Skerker 

  4. Secret Intelligence and Covert Action: Consensus in an Open Society, LTC John C. Green, U.S. Army, U.S. Army War College, 1993

  5. Ethical "Need to Knows" For Intelligence Officers, John B. Chomeau and Anne C. Rudolph, Central Intelligence Agency, 1987

  6. Espionage - The Bridge to Liberalism, Raphael Bitton (2012) 

  7. An Ethics for the New Surveillance, Gary Marx, The Information Society, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1998 

  8. The Ethics of Spying, James Stroble, October 31, 2000 

  9. Modern Intelligence Services: Have They a Place in Ethical Foreign Policies?, Michael Herman, Conflict Studies Research Centre, September 1999 

  10. Business Intelligence and National Intelligence: Should the CIA Spy for American Companies?, David Perry, February 15, 1993 

  11. The Essential CIA, Ernest W. Lefever, American Legion Magazine, January 10, 2003 

  12. Why Spy: The Uses and Misuses of Intelligence, Stanley Kober, Cato Policy Analysis No. 265, Secember 12, 1996 

  13. A matter of ethics for cloak-and-dagger set, Abraham McLaughin, The Christian Science Monitor, October 5, 2001 

  14. Intelligence and Ethics: The CIA's Covert Operations, David Canon, The Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. IV, No. 2 (Spring 1980) 

  15. Espionage: Why Does it Happen?, Lynn F. Fischer, DoD Security Institute 

  16. "Repugnant Philosophy": Ethics, Espionage, and Covert Action, David Perry, Journal of Conflict Studies, Spring 1995. 

  17. Military and Civilian Perspectives on the Ethics of Intelligence, Jean Maria Arrigo, Report on a Workshop at the Department of Philosophy, Claremont Graduate University, September 29, 2000 

  18. Integrity, Ethics, and the CIA: The Need for Improvement, Kent Pekel, Studies in Intelligence, Spring 1998 (Center for the Study of Intelligence)

  19. Ethics and Intelligence, William M. Nolte, Joint Forces Quarterly, Issue 54, 3rd Quarter 2009 

  20. The Ethics of Information Sharing Between the FBI and CIA, Nicholas Jones et al.  

  21. The Need for Ethical Norms, Paul G. Ericson, Studies in Intelligence, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Center for the Study of Intelligence) 

  22. Privacy and Security: An ethics code for U.S.intelligence officers, Brian Snow and Clinton Brooks,

  23. The Ethical Spy: Towards Intelligence Community Rules of Professional Conduct, William E. Hudson, Georgetown Law Journal, Vol. 98, p. 1415-1439 (2010)

  24. Just Intelligence: Prolegomena to an Ethical Theory, Michael Quinlan, Intelligence and National Security, Vol. 22, Issue 1, March 2007

  25. A Bible Lesson on Spying, John M. Cardwell, Studies in Intelligence, Winter 1978 (Center for the Study of Intelligence)

  26. Democracy, Human Rights, and Intelligence Sharing, Elizabeth Sepper, Texas International Law Journal, Vol. 46, 151-207 (2010)

  27. The Virtuous Spy: Privacy as an Ethical Limit, Anita L. Allen, The Monist: An International Quarterly Journal of General Philosophical Inquiry, Vol. 91, No. 1, 2008

  28. L'éthique dans les activités de renseignement, Éric Denécé, Revue française d'administration publique, 2011/4 n° 140 , p. 707-722.

  29.  A Guide to Teaching About Intelligence and Ethics, Jan Goldman (2013)

  30. Exploring Ethics in Intelligence and the Role of Leadership, John Coyne, Dr. Peter Bell, and Shannon Merrington, International Journal of Business and Commerce, Vol. 2, no. 10, Jun 2013, pgs 27-37.

  31. The Ethical Dilemma of the USA Government Wiretapping, Arwen Mullikin and Syed (Shawon) M. Rahman, International Journal of Managing Information Technology (IJMIT), Vol. 2, No. 4, November 2010

  32. Is It Research or Is It Spying? Thinking-through ethics in Big Data AI and other knowledge sciences, Bettina Berendt et al., Künstliche Intelligenz 2015 (pre-print version)

  33. The Legitimacy of Spying Among Nations, Raphael Bitton, American University International Law Review, Vol. 29, Issue 5 (2014)

  34. Spying: A Normative Account of the Second Oldest Profession, Ronald E. Watson, Washington University in St. Louis, All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs), Paper 1106.

  35. Leaker Traitor Whistleblower Spy: National Security Leaks and the First Amendment, Mary-Rose Papandrea, Boston University Law Review, Vol. 94, 449-544 (2014)

  36. An Ethical Duty to Protect One's Own Information Privacy, Anita L. Allen, Alabama Law Review, Vol. 64, 845-866 (2013).

  37. How Useful is the Concept of Just War as an Ethical Foundation for Assessing the Activities of the United Kingdom's Intelligence Community?, Major John A. Jeffcoat, British Army (2015).

  38. Presidential Limitations on the Ethical Uses of Covert Action, Joselito Burgos (Master's Thesis, Georgetown University, 2009).

  39. Rusbridger's "The Snowden Leaks and the Public: and Mill's Utilitarianism: An Analysis of the Utilitarian Concern of "Going Dark", Casey Hladik, Stance, Vol. 7, April 2014

  40. Sed Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes: The CIA's Office of General Counsel?, John Radsan, Journal of National Security Law & Policy, Vol. 2, 201-255 (2010)

  41. Intelligence Gathering and the Law: Conflict or Compatibility?, Benjamin R. Civiletti, 48 Fordham L. Rev. 883 (1980)

  42. Spies Without Borders: International Law and Intelligence Collection, 5 Journal of National Security Law & Policy 179 (2011)

  43. The Spy Who Came in From the Cold War: Intelligence and International Law, Simon Chesterman, 27 Michigan Journal of International Law 1071 (2006)

  44. An International Legal Framework for Surveillance, Ashley Deeks, 55 Virginia Journal of International Law 291 (2015)

  45. Tolerance of International Espionage: A Functional Approach, Christopher D. Baker, 19 American University International Law Review 1091 (2003-2004)

  46. Status of espionage from the perspective of international laws with emphasis on countries' diplomatic and consular relations, Zahra Baheri and Ali Shojaei Fard, 2 Journal of Scientific Research and Development 41 (2015)

  47. Counterintuitive: Intelligence Operations and International Law, Glenn Sulmasy and John Yoo, 28 Michigan Journal of International Law 625 (2006-2007)

  48. Human Rights Treaties and Foreign Surveillance: Privacy in the Digital Age, Marko Milanovic, 56 Harvard International Law Journal 81 (Winter 2015)

  49. 'We Can't Spy...If We Can't Buy!': The Privatization of Intelligence and the Limits of Outsourcing 'Inherently Governmental Functions', Simon Chesterman, 19 European Journal of International Law 1055 (2008)

  50. Spying for Peace: Explaining the Absence of Formal Regulation of Peacetime Espionage, Michael Kapp, (master's thesis, University of Chicago, June 2007)

  51. Intelligence as legal evidence: Comparative criminal research into the viability of the proposed Dutch scheme of shielded intelligence witnesses in England and Wales, and legislative compliance with Article 6(3)(d) ECHR, Jill E. B. Coster van Voorhout, Utrecht Law Review

  52. Law, Privacy and Surveillance in Canada in the Post-Snowden Era, University of Ottawa Press (Michael Geist, editor)(2015)

  53. A Rule of Lenity for National Security Surveillance Law, Orin Kerr, 100 Virginia Law Review 1513 (2014)

  54. Spying in a Transparent World: Ethics and Intelligence in the 21st Century, The Geneva Centre for Security Policy, Dr. Siobhan Martin (2016)

  55. Spies and journalists: Towards an ethical framework?, Paul Lashmar, The International Journal of Communication Ethics, Vol. 12, No. 3/4 (2015)

  56. Echelon: Espionage Without Ethics, John Bole, Massey University, New Zealand (2015)

  57. The Ethics of Intelligence Collection, Jim Rolfe, Address to the Annual Conference of the New Zealand Institute of Intelligence Professionals, 15 July 2015

  58. What's the Harm? The Ethics of Intelligence Collection, Ross Bellaby, Intelligence & National Security 27(1): 93-117 (2012)

  59. "We're the Ones that Stand Up and Tell You the Truth": Necessity of Ethical Intelligence Services, Nathan J. Phillips, Salus Journal, V. 4, No. 2 (2016)

  60. Duplicity and Diligence: An Ethical Forensic Case Study of International Espionage, Michael C. Knapp & Carol A. Knapp, Journal of Forensic & Investigative Accounting, Vol. 6, Issue 1, (2014)

  61. Intelligence Ethics in the Digital Age, Michele Cantarella, Thesis, 2015/2016

  62. The Ethics of Interrogation and the Rule of Law, A Report by the Center for Ethics and Rule of Law, University of Pennsylvania (2017)

  63. Surveillance by intelligence services: fundamental rights safeguards and remedies in the EU: Mapping Member States' legal frameworks, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2016)

  64. Informants, spies and subversion, statewatchjournal: reflections on the state and civil liberties in Europe, vol. 23, no 2 (August 2013). The entire issue is dedicated to the impact of using informants.

  65. Watching Them: Watching Us- Where are the Ethical Boundaries? Dr. Steve Wright: Reader in Applied Global Ethics; Leeds Beckett University

  66. Shaken and Stirred, The Economist, Special Report on Espionage, November 12, 2016

  67. Understanding Digital Intelligence and the Norms that Might Govern It, David Ormand, Paper Series: No. 8, Global Commission on Internet Governance, (2015)

  68. At What Cost, Intelligence? A Case Study of the Consequences of Ethical (and Unethical) Leadership, Major Douglas A. Pryer, U.S. Army, Military Review, May-June 2010

  69. Covert Human Intelligence Sources: Code of Practice, Home Office, United Kingdom (December 2014)

  70. Covert Surveillance and Property Interference: Code of Practice, Home Office, United Kingdom (December 2014)

  71. Policy and Procedures for undertaking Directed Covert Surveillance and the use of Covert Human Intelligence Sources, Southend-on-Sea Borough Council, United Kingdom (updated 2016)

  72. Demystifying the Title 10-Title 50 Debate: Distinguishing Military Operations, Intelligence Activities & Covert Action, Andru E. Wall, Harvard National Security Journal, Vol. 3 (2011)

  73. Putting the War Back in Just War Theory: A Critique of Examples, Mark Rigstad, Ethical Perspectives, 24, no. 1 (2017)

  74. Keeping the 'Spies & Spooks' on the Right Track: Ethics in the Post 9/11 Intelligence Era, Monica den Boer, Ethics and Security (2010)

  75. Intelligence Agents, Autonomous Slaves and the U.S. Supreme Court's Wrong (And Right) Concept of Personal Autonomy, Raphael Bitton, European Journal of Legal Studies, vol. 7, no. 1 (2014)

  76. Being a good spy: Legitimizing access to web-based observation, Ingeborg Mikalsen Gronning, Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics, 9(2) (2015)

  77. The International Legal Regulation of State-Sponsored Cyber Espionage, Russell Buchan, International Cyber Norms: Legal, Policy & Industry Perspectives, Anna-Maria Osula and Henry Roigas (eds.) 2016

  78. The Interaction between Intelligence Operations and Ethics in the Context of National Security: A Theoretical Review of the Problem, Audrone Petrauskaite and Laurynas Saltenis, Lithuanian Annual Strategic Review, vol. 16 (2017-2018).