Online Articles

  1. An Exotic Tool for Espionage: A Moral Compass, Scott Shane, New York Times, January 28, 2006 

  2. Bungee Jumping Off the Moral Highground: The Ethics of Espionage in the Modern Age, Tony Pfaff, 2002 

  3. Intelligence Ethics and Non-Coercive Interrogation, Michael Skerker 

  4. Secret Intelligence and Covert Action: Consensus in an Open Society, LTC John C. Green, U.S. Army, U.S. Army War College, 1993

  5. Ethical "Need to Knows" For Intelligence Officers, John B. Chomeau and Anne C. Rudolph, Central Intelligence Agency, 1987

  6. Espionage - The Bridge to Liberalism, Raphael Bitton (2012) 

  7. An Ethics for the New Surveillance, Gary Marx, The Information Society, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1998 

  8. The Ethics of Spying, James Stroble, October 31, 2000 

  9. Modern Intelligence Services: Have They a Place in Ethical Foreign Policies?, Michael Herman, Conflict Studies Research Centre, September 1999 

  10. Business Intelligence and National Intelligence: Should the CIA Spy for American Companies?, David Perry, February 15, 1993 

  11. The Essential CIA, Ernest W. Lefever, American Legion Magazine, January 10, 2003 

  12. Why Spy: The Uses and Misuses of Intelligence, Stanley Kober, Cato Policy Analysis No. 265, Secember 12, 1996 

  13. A matter of ethics for cloak-and-dagger set, Abraham McLaughin, The Christian Science Monitor, October 5, 2001 

  14. Intelligence and Ethics: The CIA's Covert Operations, David Canon, The Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. IV, No. 2 (Spring 1980) 

  15. Espionage: Why Does it Happen?, Lynn F. Fischer, DoD Security Institute 

  16. "Repugnant Philosophy": Ethics, Espionage, and Covert Action, David Perry, Journal of Conflict Studies, Spring 1995. 

  17. Military and Civilian Perspectives on the Ethics of Intelligence, Jean Maria Arrigo, Report on a Workshop at the Department of Philosophy, Claremont Graduate University, September 29, 2000 

  18. Integrity, Ethics, and the CIA: The Need for Improvement, Kent Pekel, Studies in Intelligence, Spring 1998 (Center for the Study of Intelligence)

  19. Ethics and Intelligence, William M. Nolte, Joint Forces Quarterly, Issue 54, 3rd Quarter 2009 

  20. The Ethics of Information Sharing Between the FBI and CIA, Nicholas Jones et al.  

  21. The Need for Ethical Norms, Paul G. Ericson, Studies in Intelligence, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Center for the Study of Intelligence) 

  22. Privacy and Security: An ethics code for U.S.intelligence officers, Brian Snow and Clinton Brooks,

  23. The Ethical Spy: Towards Intelligence Community Rules of Professional Conduct, William E. Hudson, Georgetown Law Journal, Vol. 98, p. 1415-1439 (2010)

  24. Just Intelligence: Prolegomena to an Ethical Theory, Michael Quinlan, Intelligence and National Security, Vol. 22, Issue 1, March 2007

  25. A Bible Lesson on Spying, John M. Cardwell, Studies in Intelligence, Winter 1978 (Center for the Study of Intelligence)

  26. Democracy, Human Rights, and Intelligence Sharing, Elizabeth Sepper, Texas International Law Journal, Vol. 46, 151-207 (2010)

  27. The Virtuous Spy: Privacy as an Ethical Limit, Anita L. Allen, The Monist: An International Quarterly Journal of General Philosophical Inquiry, Vol. 91, No. 1, 2008

  28. L'éthique dans les activités de renseignement, Éric Denécé, Revue française d'administration publique, 2011/4 n° 140 , p. 707-722.

  29.  A Guide to Teaching About Intelligence and Ethics, Jan Goldman (2013)

  30. Exploring Ethics in Intelligence and the Role of Leadership, John Coyne, Dr. Peter Bell, and Shannon Merrington, International Journal of Business and Commerce, Vol. 2, no. 10, Jun 2013, pgs 27-37.

  31. The Ethical Dilemma of the USA Government Wiretapping, Arwen Mullikin and Syed (Shawon) M. Rahman, International Journal of Managing Information Technology (IJMIT), Vol. 2, No. 4, November 2010

  32. Is It Research or Is It Spying? Thinking-through ethics in Big Data AI and other knowledge sciences, Bettina Berendt et al., Künstliche Intelligenz 2015 (pre-print version)

  33. The Legitimacy of Spying Among Nations, Raphael Bitton, American University International Law Review, Vol. 29, Issue 5 (2014)

  34. Spying: A Normative Account of the Second Oldest Profession, Ronald E. Watson, Washington University in St. Louis, All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs), Paper 1106.

  35. Leaker Traitor Whistleblower Spy: National Security Leaks and the First Amendment, Mary-Rose Papandrea, Boston University Law Review, Vol. 94, 449-544 (2014)

  36. An Ethical Duty to Protect One's Own Information Privacy, Anita L. Allen, Alabama Law Review, Vol. 64, 845-866 (2013).

  37. How Useful is the Concept of Just War as an Ethical Foundation for Assessing the Activities of the United Kingdom's Intelligence Community?, Major John A. Jeffcoat, British Army (2015).

  38. Presidential Limitation on the Ethical Uses of Covert Action, Joselito Burgos (Master's Thesis, Georgetown University, 2009).

  39. Rethinking 'Five Eyes' Security Intelligence Collection Policies and Practice Post Snowden, Patrick F. Walsh and Seumas Miller, Intelligence and National Security (2015)

  40. Ethics, Morals & Administrative Evil: Intelligence Abuses, Jirina Foltysova, American Military University, 2009 (Research Analysis Paper)

  41. Ethics and Intelligence: The Implications of the Rise of the Armed Drone, Mark Phythian, University of Leicester (2010)

  42. Rusbridger's "The Snowden Leaks and the Public: and Mill's Utilitarianism: An Analysis of the Utilitarian Concern of "Going Dark", Casey Hladik, Stance, Vol. 7, April 2014

  43. Ethical Continuum - Consequentialist Approach to Intelligence Collection, Michael Caimona, American Military University (student paper)

  44. Sed Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes: The CIA's Office of General Counsel?, John Radsan, Journal of National Security Law & Policy, Vol. 2, 201-255 (2010)

  45. Explaining the Ethical Dilemma of the Central Intelligence Agency, Glenn Wade Kopchak, American Public University  (Master's Thesis) (2010)

  46. Intelligence Gathering and the Law: Conflict or Compatibility?, Benjamin R. Civiletti, 48 Fordham L. Rev. 883 (1980)

  47. Spies Without Borders: International Law and Intelligence Collection, 5 Journal of National Security Law & Policy 179 (2011)

  48. The Spy Who Came in From the Cold War: Intelligence and International Law, Simon Chesterman, 27 Michigan Journal of International Law 1071 (2006)

  49. An International Legal Framework for Surveillance, Ashley Deeks, 55 Virginia Journal of International Law 291 (2015)

  50. Tolerance of International Espionage: A Functional Approach, Christopher D. Baker, 19 American University International Law Review 1091 (2003-2004)

  51. Status of espionage from the perspective of international laws with emphasis on countries' diplomatic and consular relations, Zahra Baheri and Ali Shojaei Fard, 2 Journal of Scientific Research and Development 41 (2015)

  52. Counterintuitive: Intelligence Operations and International Law, Glenn Sulmasy and John Yoo, 28 Michigan Journal of International Law 625 (2006-2007)

  53. Human Rights Treaties and Foreign Surveillance: Privacy in the Digital Age, Marko Milanovic, 56 Harvard International Law Journal 81 (Winter 2015)

  54. 'We Can't Spy...If We Can't Buy!': The Privatization of Intelligence and the Limits of Outsourcing 'Inherently Governmental Functions', Simon Chesterman, 19 European Journal of International Law 1055 (2008)

  55. Spying for Peace: Explaining the Absence of Formal Regulation of Peacetime Espionage, Michael Kapp, (master's thesis, University of Chicago, June 2007)

  56. Intelligence as legal evidence: Comparative criminal research into the viability of the proposed Dutch scheme of shielded intelligence witnesses in England and Wales, and legislative compliance with Article 6(3)(d) ECHR, Jill E. B. Coster van Voorhout, Utrecht Law Review

  57. Law, Privacy and Surveillance in Canada in the Post-Snowden Era, University of Ottawa Press (Michael Geist, editor)(2015)

  58. A Rule of Lenity for National Security Surveillance Law, Orin Kerr, 100 Virginia Law Review 1513 (2014)

  59. Spying in a Transparent World: Ethics and Intelligence in the 21st Century, The Geneva Centre for Security Policy, Dr. Siobhan Martin (2016)